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Standard 1: Chronological Thinking

A. Distinguish between past, present, and future time.

B. Identify the temporal structure of a historical narrative or story.

C. Establish temporal order in constructing historical narratives of their own.

D. Measure and calculate calendar time.

E. Interpret data presented in time lines and create time lines.

F. Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration; explain historical continuity and change.

G. Compare alternative models for periodization.

Standard 2 : Historical Comprehension

A. Identify the author or source of the historical document or narrative and assess its credibility.

B. Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage.

C. Identify the central question(s) the historical narrative addresses.

D. Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations.

E. Read historical narratives imaginatively.

F. Appreciate historical perspectives.

G. Draw upon data in historical maps.

H. Utilize visual, mathematical, and quatitative data.

Standard 3 : Historical Analysis and Interpretation

A. Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas.

B. Consider multiple perspectives.

C. Analyze cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation, including the importance of the individual, the influence of ideas.

D. Draw comparisons across eras and regions in order to define enduring issues.

E. Distinguish between unsupported expressions of opinion and informed hypotheses grounded in historical evidence.

F. Compare competing historical narratives.

G. Challenge arguments of historical inevitability.

H. Hold interpretations of history as tentative.

I. Evaluate major debates among historians.

J. Hypothesize the influence of the past.

Standard 4 : Historical Research Capabilities

A. Formulate historical questions.

B. Obtain historical data from a variety of sources.

C. Interrogate historical data.

D. Identify the gaps in the available records, marshal contextual knowledge and perspectives of the time and place.

E. Employ quantitative analysis.

F. Support interpretations with historical evidence.

Standard 5 : Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making

A. Identify issues and problems in the past.

B. Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances.

C. Identify relevant historical antecedents.

D. Evaluate alternative courses of action.

E. Formulate a position or course of action on an issue.

F. Evaluate the implementation of a decision.

Putting Historical Thinking Skills to Work